Contents - Technology 4 ESO

Contents


1 THE HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY ................... 4

1.1 The Palaeolithic (until 10,000 B.C.) ......................... 4
1.2 The Neolithic (10,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.) ............. 5
1.3 Ancient history (3000 B.C. to 500 AD) .................. 6
1.4 The Middle Ages (500 AD to 1500 AD)................. 7
1.5 The Modern Age (1500 B.C. to 1750 AD) ............. 8
1.6 The Industrial Revolution (around XIX Century) ...... 9
1.7 The 20th Century .................................................. 10
1.8 Sustainability........................................................... 11
1.9 Types of societies .................................................. 12


2 ELECTRONICS ................. 16
2.1 Resistors............................. 18
2.2 Capacitors ......................... 20
2.3 Diodes ............................... 21
2.4 Transistors ......................... 22
2.5 Integrated circuits ............... 24
2.6 Printed circuit board ........... 26
2.7 Voltage divider ................... 27
2.8 Relays ................................ 27


3 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ............... 32

3.1 Truth tables ........................................ 32
3.2 The logic gates ................................... 34
3.3 Function from the truth table .............. 36
3.4 Design a circuit................................... 37
3.5 Simplifying a logic function ................. 38
3.6 Circuit simulators ............................... 39


4 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ........... 44
4.1 Wired communication ......................................... 45
4.2 Wired communication systems ............................ 46
4.3 Wireless communication ..................................... 47
4.4 Wireless communication systems ........................ 50
4.5 Health effects of electromagnetic radiation .......... 53


5 CONTROL AND ROBOTICS ...... 56
5.1 Control systems .............................. 57
5.2 Sensors .......................................... 58
5.3 Relays ............................................ 59
5.4 The computer as a control tool ........ 60
5.5 Programming with “Logo” ................ 61

6 HOUSEHOLD UTILITIES ....... 66
6.1 Electricity ................................... 66
6.2 Water supply ............................. 72
6.3 Drainage system ........................ 75
6.4 Gas ........................................... 76
6.5 Heating and air conditioning ....... 77
6.6 Energy saving ............................ 78
6.7 Bioclimatic architecture ............. 78
6.8 Domotics .................................. 79

7 PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS ..... 84
7.1 Pascal’s Law ............................................................ 85
7.2 Elements in pneumatic and hydraulic circuits ............... 86
7.3 Elements of pneumatic circuits ................................... 87
7.4 Pneumatic circuit diagrams ........................................ 94
7.5 Hydraulic circuits ...................................................... 96
7.6 Advantages of pneumatics and hydraulics .................. 97

8 HARDWARE AND COMPUTER NETWORKS ..... 102
8.1 Basic parts of a computer .............................................102
8.2 Computer networks .....................................................106
8.3 Local area networks ....................................................107
8.4 Wireless networks .......................................................108
8.5 Wide area networks - Internet ......................................109
8.6 Data security ................................................................111

9 DESIGN SOFTWARE ..................................... 114
9.1 Hardware and software for computer design ......115
9.2 Types of applications ........................................116
9.3 Graphic design ..................................................117
9.4 CAD .................................................................118
9.5 CAE ..................................................................120
9.6 CAM .................................................................121
9.7 CAD with “FreeCAD” .......................................122
9.8 CAD with “SketchUp” .......................................124
9.9 GIMP ................................................................126